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Is raw chicken a threat to your dog?

Discussion in 'Raw & Home Cooked Diets' started by strykerdobe, Feb 6, 2018.

  1. strykerdobe

    strykerdobe Hot Topics Subscriber


    [NEWS] Are Chicken Necks Linked To Paralysis In Dogs?

    There’s been an alarming report in the news out of Australia recently about the dangers of feeding raw chicken to your dog …

    … and I want to address it.

    I know a lot of you feed your dog chicken as part of a balanced raw diet, and so these stories may have you a little worried. But don’t just go tossing that meat!

    You deserve to get the whole story, not just the info the mainstream media decides to share.

    Here’s what you need to know.

    What Is Campylobacter?
    Campylobacter is the bacteria that can cause Campylobacter infection or campylobacterosis. Campylobacteriosis can cause enteritis, an inflammation of your dog’s intestinal tract that typically results in diarrhea.

    Humans with campylobacteriosis usually get it from eating contaminated dairy or undercooked chicken … and you can also pick it up from your dog if you’re not careful about hygiene after handling dog poop.

    Dogs can also pick up Campylobacter bacteria from eating raw chicken. But it’s not usually a big deal. In fact 49% of dogs have Campylobacter bacteria in their systems … but healthy dogs don’t usually get sick from it, so it’s not considered a primary cause of illness in dogs. However, dogs can shed the bacteria into their feces which is one way humans and other dogs can pick it up.

    Symptoms of campylobacteriosis in dogs are:

    • watery, mucousy diarrhea
    • abdominal pain or cramping
    • lethargy
    • fever
    The diarrhea can come and go over a week or more and often goes away without treatment.

    So the Campylobacter bacteria isn’t very serious in dogs.

    So it was surprising to see this new study out of Australia that links campylobacter to Acute Polyradiculoneuritis (APN), a form of paralysis.


    Acute or idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis (APN) is characterized by symptoms like weakness or loss of movement in the back legs, which can then move to the torso and front legs. These symptoms have been compared to Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS) in humans. GBS is a disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks the nerves, causing early symptoms like weakness in the legs, pins and needles sensations in fingers, toes, ankles or wrists, pain, difficulty walking, loss of bladder control and ultimately, if not treated, paralysis.

    The researchers in the studied stated: “We have observed that it is common practice for Australian dog owners to feed their dogs raw chicken as part of their daily diet or simply as a treat. Thus, we are under the impression that the prevalence of raw chicken consumption is very high in the population of APN dogs that they have diagnosed or treated and that the incidence of APN is possibly higher in Australia than in other countries.”

    The study, which examined 27 dogs with APN, found that of the 27, 26 ate raw chicken as part of their diets.

    So, in the researchers’ minds, if raw chicken is A, Camplylobacter is B, and APN is C, then A = B = C.

    Therefore all raw chicken is the problem and the main cause of APN.

    I think that’s a stretch and I’m not confident making that jump.

    Let me tell you why.

    How Much Of A Concern Is Campylobacter?
    While APN sounds pretty scary (and it is), there are some serious flaws in assuming the cause is chicken infected with campylobacter. Here’s why …

    Reason #1 – Campylobacter bacteria can be found in both healthy and sick dogs.
    Research has found that Campylobacter bacteria can be found in both healthy and sick dogs, which suggests the bacteria itself isn’t the primary cause of illness.

    Even the study, which compared the APN dogs with a control group of healthy dogs, found Campylobacter in the healthy dogs. And many of these dogs also ate raw chicken.


    Reason #2 – Symptoms of APN have been linked to vaccinations.
    Muscle weakness and atrophy are common vaccine reactions for several vaccines including combination vaccines.

    In the Australian study, while one of the variables tested was whether or not the dogs had received vaccinations, they only measured for vaccines done in the previous 6 weeks. And, only 1 dog had been vaccinated during that period.

    And 6 weeks isn’t nearly long enough. Conventional veterinarians tend to think that if your dog doesn’t have a vaccine reaction while they’re still in the clinic, any illness isn’t linked to vaccination. But some of the most serious vaccine reactions resulting in chronic illness can take up to several months or longer to appear in dogs.

    The researchers themselves even recognize the link between vaccines and disease, saying that “Cases of GBS after rabies and swine influenza vaccines also have been reported.”

    [Related: Vaccines are dangerous for so many reasons. Read more on this here]
    Reason #3 – There are several other causes linked to APN.
    If the researchers are going to make chicken seem like the enemy, it’s only right to make you aware of the other enemies.

    The researchers say that their study “clearly demonstrates that consumption of raw chicken is a risk factor for dogs in the development of APN, and we suspect that Campylobacter infection is most likely to be an immunologic trigger as described in humans with GBS” …

    … But, when it comes to dogs developing the GBS-like symptoms that make up APN, there are several other factors and infectious agents that have been found to be associated with GBS, including:

    • Haemophilus influenza
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • Epstein-Barr virus
    • Borrelia burgdorferi (associated with Lyme disease)
    • Toxoplasma gondii
    • Zika virus
    • Vaccination (rabies, swine flu)
    • Surgical procedures
    An exploratory study into factors influencing development of acute canine polyradiculoneuritis in the UK found that breed and season were the most consistent factors in dogs that developed polyradiculoneuritis. Odds of getting it were higher in the autumn and winter compared to spring, and Jack Russell terriers and West Highland white terriers had significantly greater odds of developing the disease compared to a mixed baseline group of dogs.

    Veterinarian and animal nutritionist Marion Smart DVM PhD notes that the symptoms are comparable to Coonhound paralysis, or Acute Canine Idiopathic Polyradiculoneuritis (ACIP), which has been attributed to encounters with racoons or even ticks – not raw chicken.

    All of this information suggests that the causes of APN aren’t really known and so it seems like a giant leap of faith to suggest it’s caused by raw chicken or even by the Campylobacter bacteria.

    Reason #4 – More research is needed.
    I spoke with Dr Smart about this at length, and her conclusions are the same as mine. While the study seems good, it does have some BIG weaknesses.

    • It doesn’t examine the diets of those dogs being fed raw chicken or look at where that chicken comes from. The researchers themselves acknowledge this weakness: “Analysis of the raw chicken given to the APN dogs also would have been helpful, but such samples were not available from the owners.”
    • It mentions breed and the fact that smaller breed dogs seem to be more at risk, but it doesn’t talk about whether this could be because of a genetic disposition.
    • While the study did consider several other health factors or lifestyle triggers that contribute to the dog’s getting APN, the goal of the study was “to estimate the association between Campylobacter spp. infection and APN,” so campylobacter was the primary focus of the research.
    I also spoke with Roxanne Stone MSc, nutrition and food scientist at Answers Pet Foods. Roxanne reminded me that in Australia in 2009 there were studies linking neurological disorders (including paralysis) in cats to irradiated pet food. Irradiation of pet foods, especially imported pet foods, is very common in Australia, and labeling of irradiated foods is not required. Could there also be a link between irradiated foods and APN in dogs?

    How Does Campylobacter Get Into Chicken?
    Chicken can be made cheap. The industry mass produces it to keep it that way. And this production means Camplylobacter can get mass produced as well.

    Here’s how:

    1. Overcrowding. On the farm, to maximise profits, farmers typically overstock their chicken coops, resulting in Campylobacter spreading because of the close quarters. Farmers will also “thin” their herds to save space, and this leads to the bacteria spreading to other farms. Overcrowding also leads to stressed birds and greater susceptibility to disease.
    2. Transport. When chickens are transported from the farm to the processing plant in cages, these cages are stacked one on top of another on top of another. The chickens poop during transport, and the poop from the top makes its way all through the cages, falling into the other animals.
    3. Cross-contamination. Once at the processing plant, these chickens don’t receive a mandatory bathing. So, all that poop just gets spread around. During the manufacturing process, chickens pass through a tank of hot water to loosen up the feathers to make them easy to pluck. As you know, these feathers are covered in poop from transport. The water in these tanks isn’t changed often enough to prevent contamination, and by the end of the day it can resemble a poop bath. Yuck.
    4. Packaging. Poor hygiene practices in the final processing stages also spread the bacteria. Without strict protocols in place, factory workers may be unknowingly contaminating the chicken you’re buying for your dog when cutting up or packaging it.

    Camplylobacter should be a concern, but more because what’s happening with our pet food is happening with our human food. It’s not necessarily chicken that’s the problem, it’s how that chicken is raised and slaughtered. Instead of continually looking at the problem, we should be working on finding a solution!” – Dr Marion Smart, DVM PhD
    How Do You Avoid Campylobacter?
    It’s actually fairly easy to avoid campylobacter. All you have to do is find the right source for your dog’s dinner.

    Chicken from the wrong source can be an issue for a number of reasons, including the fact that mass produced chickens are fed a diet full of garbage. And, if your dog is eating that chicken, he’s also eating that garbage …

    … but contamination is a big one too. And, since mass production, mass transport and mass processing are major factors in contamination, cut them out.

    This simply means skipping the regular supermarket and going to an ethical producer.

    When buying chicken research your source. Make sure they:

    • Adhere to strict hygiene protocols
    • Produce only free range or organic chicken
    • Follow a standard of humane raising, meaning no overcrowding, no harsh conditions for the chickens and more hygienic transport
    And, most important of all, do everything you can to keep your dog’s gut healthy. That means feeding a whole foods diet (which, if you’re concerned about raw chicken, you’re probably already doing) and …

    • Feed your dog a wide variety of raw and fermented (probiotic) foods like:
      • Fermented veggies like kimchi or sauerkraut
      • Kefir
      • Raw goats milk
    [Related: Want recommendations on giving your dog probiotic foods? Check out these from holistic veterinarian Patricia Jordan, DVM.]

    “Campylobacter is no big deal. At most your dog will suffer a bout of diarrhea or an upset stomach. It’s a big leap to say that it causes APN. Keep a healthy gut – campylobacter can’t compete with a healthy gut!” – Roxanne Stone, MSc
    Raw food diets seem to constantly be under attack by commercial pet food providers and those who benefit from them, including the veterinary schools and researchers who just happen to be funded by them.

    Yes, raw chicken can be a problem, but only if you’re not careful. That doesn’t mean you need to stop feeding chicken. It just means you should be getting your dog’s chicken from the right place.

    About the Author Julia Henriques
    Julia Henriques is Managing Editor of Dogs Naturally Magazine. She's on the Board of Playing Again Sams (Wisconsin Samoyed Rescue) where she enjoys helping adopters and group members choose more natural health care options for their dogs. She lives in Chicago with her partner Marc and two rescue Samoyeds.
    • Informative Informative x 3

    GOD'S GRACE Notable member

    @strykerdobe Thanks for the read, I've been feeding my dogs past/present raw chix for 8 years. Right out of the wrapper/freezer and have not had any issues. I shall continue to do so...I do however sanitize the stainless steel bowl after feeding...:thumbsup2:
    • Like Like x 4
  3. strykerdobe

    strykerdobe Hot Topics Subscriber

    We have not had any issues either feeding chicken! About 5yrs of feeding Raw chicken.
    • Like Like x 2
    • Agree Agree x 2
  4. AresMyDobie

    AresMyDobie Hot Topics Subscriber $ Forum Donor $

    I’ve cut chicken out of thier diet completely
  5. Gelcoater

    Gelcoater Expert ThreadCrapper $ Premium Subscriber $ Hot Topics Subscriber

    I can see why!

    And interesting they suggest giving dogs kimchi, sounds like a good excuse to stock up:)
    • Like Like x 1
  6. WiglWerm

    WiglWerm Hot Topics Subscriber

    SOOO basically don't eat your dogs poop...could be contaminated...I should be ok...You? LOL
    • Funny Funny x 1
  7. WiglWerm

    WiglWerm Hot Topics Subscriber

  8. WiglWerm

    WiglWerm Hot Topics Subscriber

    So basically NO CHICKEN FOR YOU!! (soup nazi, lol)
    • Like Like x 1
    • Funny Funny x 1
  9. WiglWerm

    WiglWerm Hot Topics Subscriber

    • Informative Informative x 2
    • Like Like x 1

    GOD'S GRACE Notable member

    I can only speak of things I know, and locally I can buy "Natural Chicken/no additives or extras". There is a difference to, color and size for sure, but like I stated before I've been feeding raw chix to dogs for years with issue. No soup nazi here, lol
    • Like Like x 2
  11. strykerdobe

    strykerdobe Hot Topics Subscriber

    Well now this one came out!

    Dogs First - Home of Raw Dog Food and Natural Health Advice
    Recently, Melbourne University produced a study investigating Acute PolyradiculoNeuritis (APN) in dogs. This is an immune-mediated peripheral nerve disorder where a suspected trigger is the bacterial pathogen Campylobacter spp. In a piece entitled “Raw Chicken Causes Paralysis in Dogs”, the university found that around half of their APN dogs (13 of 27, 48%) had Campylobacter spp. in their faeces. Further, they found that 98% of the APN cases (26 of 27) had been fed raw chicken (including such pieces as necks and wings). From this, the authors concluded,

    raw chicken in the diet is highly likely to increase the risk of developing APN in dogs in Australia


    OK, on first glance, certainly considering the author’s conclusions, this doesn’t look good for raw feeding. Raw chicken is certainly a source of Campylobacter and a lot of raw dog foods are based on raw chicken. What’s more, Campylobacter is well known to put you on your ass, or at least pooing a lot out of it. It is the most common bacterial cause of enteric disease worldwide, with two million American cases reported annually. Despite authors yet to document a single incident of Campylobacterpoisoning in humans resulting from a raw fed dog (Finley et al. 2006), it’s an emotive one for the people.

    Needless to say, this University of Melbournes study was eagerly seized upon by our vets (Pete The Vet, Longford Vets, U-Vet, to name but three) as well as media outlets worldwide (ABC news, News.com, Daily Mail etc) as yet more proof that fresh food as a whole is dangerous for your dog and you should only feed them highly processed, inert, packets of crud made in China.

    Before you do though, how about a little context.

    First, has anyone on here ever heard of APN?! Come on now, there are thousands of you out there feeding raw chicken, surely one of your dogs has been stricken down?!!!!

    No?! OK, let’s look to the science for a little more context…

    Approximately half the canine population house Campylobacter in their guts. It’s a very normal thing for cats and dogs to have, irrespective if they are dry or raw fed. Yes, there are 37 species and subspecies in the Campylobacter genus, although most are nonpathogenic. Studies repeatedly show that between 24-58% of healthy, of raw AND dry-fed dogs house Campylobacter species (Olson and Sandstedt 1987, Wieland et al.2005, Chaban et al. 2010). In fact, a study from the very area surrounding the veterinary university that produced the study (South Australia) noted a prevalence of 40% Campylobacter in healthy dogs (Baker et al.1999), albeit a lot of the test population were strays.

    But when the authors of this study found almost exactly the same figure of Campylobacter in their APN dogs (13 of 27, 48%) they concluded that their study was “the first to report the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in healthy domestic dogs in Australia and in dogs suffering from APN”, somehow attributing the rare disease to something we know affects up to 58% of normal, healthy, dry and raw fed dogs, and at the same time ignoring the fact the other half of their APN dogs did not test positive for the bug! An extraordinary leap.

    To reiterate that point, it won’t matter if you dry feed them as dry fed dogs too house Campylobacter in their guts, just in case you thought that was going to prevent the vicious onslaught of APN in your raw fed dogs, unless your vet knows of a magic dry food that actually prevents dogs from housing these particular microbes in their intestines, which I’m sure they’re working on.

    Contrary to the findings in this study, previous authors found no such link with Campylobacter and APN in dogs (Holt et al. 2011). In fact, these authors investigated the link between 6 microbes (Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Campylobacter and distemper) with APN and found that T. gondii was the only significant culprit.

    Instead, APN has been linked to a great variety of maladies including vaccinations (Gehring and Eggars 2001) as well as common upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections (Cummings et al. 1992, Cuddon 2002). Other authors have found a strong seasonal effect, where APN was more likely to strike in Autumn and Winter, as well as a breed effect, with Jack Russell terriers and West Highland white terriers most affected (Laws et al. 2017).

    Hilariously, and betraying their complete lack of knowledge of the sector they aim to discriminate, this study attempted to explain the breed effect by stating the following (italics added by me):

    …based on our clinical experience, small dogs are more likely to be fed raw chicken because of the presence of small bones in the chicken which are easily eaten by these dogs rather than larger meat bones that may be fed to medium and large breed dogs.

    Most damning for their argument, APN has been documented to occur in pups that were not even eating real food, where 4 out of 8 weaning labrador pups were struck down with the disease (Cummings et al.1988).

    This study is talking about 27 dogs with APN. For those of you outside the science realm, this is a pitifully small number of cases to be working with. When the study notes that 26/27 dogs (98%) with APN were fed raw chicken but only 13/47 control dogs (26%), my natural inclination would be a) you need far more dogs before you make any reasonable claims and b) how did you select your control dogs?

    A control group is a random sample of the normal population. A group that you can look at and expect normal or average results. It’s what you compare your test group to, to see if there’s anything going on. It’s very important in scientific terms. In this study, they state that the test group (dogs with APN) were all client owned and 98% were fed raw chicken at some stage (while this is very high the Australian’s are the world leaders at feeding raw food, they’re all at it). On the other hand, the control dogs were part client-owned but also healthy “staff dogs”. We are not told how many of each were used but we do now know that the dogs were not randomly selected. I think it’s fair to assume, being a veterinary university hospital that is presumably cash-sponsored by the dry food industry (I have sent in an FOI request of their list of cash donors for 2017 though I am yet to find a veterinary university not in receipt of pet food and drug cash), that most staff are on the dry food bandwagon and are thus appropriately terrified of feeding their pets any real food whatsoever. Can’t see too many of these dogs being fed raw chicken anyway!!!

    Furthermore, for some reason, the authors failed to balance the average weight of both groups very well. The APN group of dogs had an average body weight of 8.5kg while the control group averaged 14 kg! When you consider that smaller dogs are more likley to be fed chicken necks than medium or large dogs who are normally fed larger pieces to prevent them gulping it down, this deviation could be a causal factor biasing the fact that the APN dogs were “more likely to be fed chicken wings and necks”. Yes, because they were smaller. What makes this all the more strange is that the authors clearly state they are aware that smaller dogs are more likely to be fed chicken necks and wings.

    While this study is a complicated, heady read, when you drill into it, it’s findings are based largely around this finding that 98% of dogs with APN ate raw chicken when only 26% of the control did not. Without that finding the whole study makes no sense whatsoever.

    They need that figure in there.

    No, I really don’t know, is there?! The authors of the study seemed so clear, but I’m struggling. They found that a not-unusual 48% of their APN dogs were shedding Campylobacter (while the other half did not), noted that these dogs were being fed more raw chicken wings and necks than the control group (possibly because they were smaller coupled with the fact that the control group was populated with vet university staff dogs), concluded that their neurological disorder was caused by the chicken (an impossible leap) and recommended everyone to steer clear of all raw dog food as a whole.

    Much like a cold sore infection in sick humans that seems to wait and pop out at times of weakness, might this simply be a by-product of the sickness, where APN makes them so sick it somehow results in a tropical sprue in the affected dogs guts, where their normal population of Campylobacter are permitted to grow out of control? We see this with mange in dogs, for example. The demodectic mite is something almost all dogs (and many humans) have on them at all times. It takes a very disrupted, weakened or highly stressed system to allow it to run rampant (hence healthy dogs do not break out in mange, it is reserved for the sick, the old or highly stressed strays in kennels).

    It reminds me of the “bit of fat from the steak” argument you hear some vets using to explain pancreatitis in dry-fed dogs. You fed him that “bit of fat from the steak”, he got dangerously, painfully ill and table scraps are blamed for your dog’s condition. Like the proverbial straw that broke the camels back, that bit of fat is most certainly not to blame for that horrific infliction. Dogs are experts at eating fat. They eat a need and tolerate a LOT more of it than we do (Downey et al. 1980, Reynolds et al. 1995).

    What actually happened was that a lifetime of disgustingly high carbohydrates – twice the amount humans should be eating and of the wrong, rapidly digesting variety (wheat and corn), every single meal of their life – destroyed their pancreas. Even the pet food propaganda literature agrees that dogs do not require any carbohydrates in their whatsoever (AAFCO 2008, SACN 2010). All the carbs you dry feeders give them need a LOT of amylase to digest them which the little carnivore pancreas is unusually tasked to produce all by itself (unlike us omnivores where carb digestion begins in the mouth with the saliva. Dogs, as carnivores, completely lack this step, as they don’t eat carbs). What’s more, when all this sugar is absorbed the blood sugars soar. The pancreas has to now furiously work to produce enough insulin to balance it all, something it would rarely have to do in the wild. Every single meal. As the cells saturate with insulin the pancreas must work harder and harder until it is on its last legs. One more straw and the camel’s back breaks. You then feed your dog a lovely lump of fat from your steak and the organ shits the bed. You then take your poor dog who is writhing in agony to the vet to be told that you caused the issue. You and your bloody normal food!

    On their website, in the supporting article for the release of this study, the University of Melbourne wrote that APN is not only rare but that most dogs recover without treatment. Needless to say, they’d heal a lot better with it, my point being we are talking a lightning bolt here guys, one that is unlikely to kill them.

    With all this considered, the fact that so many veterinary groups are so eager to share such a study as proof that fresh ingredients as a whole are outright dangerous and should be ruled out entirely for pets is indicative of the depth of scientific prowess currently being employed by them in the matter.

    The truth is, once you peek behind the curtain that is the great dry pet food show, you can’t help but see it for what it is, a big circus of smoke and mirrors. I think of the little Oz, furiously peddling his pathetic contraption, pressing buttons and yanking levers, struggling desperately to keep the myth alive in the eyes of you the consumer. And you can never unsee him. You know that everything they do and say from this point on is tainted with a hefty pinch of bullshit. The conclusions drawn by this study, in my opinion, appears to be another example of that.

    The whole pet food industry is based on one whopping big secret – despite their loud claims of science-backed evidence, there is not a single study EVER conducted that has compared a group of dry fed dogs to a group of raw fed dogs and concluded that the dry fed dogs did better in any respect whatsoever. In fact, the very opposite appears to be the case. Lacking any evidence to support the use of their junk food products over fresh ingredients, all they have left to convince you to hand over €5 per kilo for what is Weetabix with cows toenail and crushed centrum tablet in it, is smoke and mirrors. And the best smoke is fear. Fear you will do it wrong. Fear they will get sick. Fear you will get sick. Fear your kids will get sick.

    I have dealt with this point more than enough times but as cereal-based dry food sales stutter and fall worldwide, to be replaced by more natural, raw dog food products not yet owned by them, the multi-billion industry is not going to go down without a fight. The notion of fear and danger will keep coming up, more and more in the future. Only last month a study recently found pathogens in a raw dog food product and it was shared with great gusto by vets nationwide (why do they never share the good news studies regarding the use of fresh ingredients, ever wonder that?). My response, read by more than 15,000 people on Facebook, noted that while it’s true raw meat-based products can contain baddies, so does dry food, so why was this being ignored? In fact, while raw dog food is yet to kill a dog or harm a single human, dry food cannot say the same in either instance. Injury aside, dry foods’ body count from chemical and microbiological contamination is absolutely shocking.

    And still, those who should be guiding us are continuing to push us away from what is statistically a safer option.

    There isn’t a dry-versus-raw debate guys, any more than there is a global warming debate. There is only skewed, industry nonsense and everyone else. Fear is their weapon. Truth is their enemy. The really scary bit is that what is true and what is industry-nonsense will become harder and harder to detect.

    Never stop asking questions of the products you are sold and the people selling them to you guys and always feed dogs fresh food.

    Is raw dog food safe?

    About raw dog food

    Another fine example of industry-funded BULLSHIT by a top scientist in a vet university – The Big Tick Project

    • Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) (2008). The dog food nutrient profiles. www.aafco.org
    • Baker J, Barton MD, Lanser J. Campylobacter species in cats and dogs in South Australia. Aust Vet J 1999;77:10.
    • Chaban, B., Ngeleka M, Hill JE. Detection and quantification of 14 Campylobacter species in pet dogs reveals an increase in species richness in feces of diarrheic animals. BMC Microbiology 2010;10:73–79
    • Cuddon P. Acquired canine peripheral neuropathies. Vet Clin N Am 2002;32:207–249.
    • Cummings J. Canine Inflammatory Neuropathies. In: Kirk RW, Boagura JD, eds. Current Veterinary Therapy XI. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1992:1034–1037.
    • Cummings, J.F., A. de Lahunta, M. M. Suter, R. H. Jacobson (1988). Canine protozoan polyradiculoneuritis. Acta Neuropathologica, 76(1):46–54
    • Downey, R. L., Kronfeld, D. S. & Banta, C. A. (1980) Diet of beagles affects stamina. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 16: 273–277.
    • Gehring, R. and Eggars, B. (2001). Suspected post-vaccinal acute polyradiculoneuritis in a puppy: short communication Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 72(2)
    • Hand, M.S., Thatcher, C.D., Remillard, R.L., Roudebush, P. and Novotny, B.J. (2010). Small Animal Clinical Nutrition, 5th Edition. Published by The Mark Morris Institute, Kansas, U.S.
    • Holt, N. Murray M, Cuddon PA, Lappin MR (2011). Seroprevalence of various infectious agents in dogs with suspected acute canine polyradiculoneuritis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine,(2):261-6
    • Laws, E.J., T. R. Harcourt-Brown, N. Granger, J. H. Rose (2017). An exploratory study into factors influencing the development of acute canine polyradiculoneuritis in the UK. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 58(8): 437–443
    • Olson P, Sandstedt K. Campylobacter in the dog: A clinical and experimental study. Vet Rec 1987;121:99–101.
    • Reynolds, A.J., Taylor, C.R., Hoppler, H., Weibel, E., Weyand, P., Roberts, R., Reinhart, G.A. (1995). The effect of diet on sled dog performance, oxidative capacity, skeletal muscle microstructure, and muscle glycogen metabolism. In: Carey, D.P., Norton, S.A., Bolser, S.M., eds. Recent Advances in Canine and Feline Nutritional Research: Proceedings of the 1996 Iams International Nutrition Symposium. Wilmington OH: Orange Frazer Press,1996; 181-198.
    • Wieland, B., G. Regula, J. Danuser, M. Wittwer, A. P. Burnens, T. M. Wassenaar, K. D. C. Stärk (2005). Campylobacter spp. in Dogs and Cats in Switzerland: Risk Factor Analysis and Molecular Characterization with AFLP. Zoonoses and public health, 52(4):183–189
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  12. Brioddy

    Brioddy Notable member

    Would cooking the chicken make it “safer”?
  13. strykerdobe

    strykerdobe Hot Topics Subscriber

    Yes But do not give any cooked bones!
    We have been feeding raw chicken for years now with no issues.
    • Like Like x 2
    • Agree Agree x 1
  14. Brioddy

    Brioddy Notable member

    I had to ask because i picked up a bunch of gizzards and hearts on sale, and my mom said I needed to cook them but like you I have always given it to them raw. So then I started googling and got every answer from it is harmless to as mentioned in this post, can cause paralysis!

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